BASIC PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING:
The principles of training derive from knowledge of the human body and its reactions to the functioning of the skeletal muscles. Always and everywhere the seven "sacred” principles of workout have to be taken into account. These principles are described in clear and short explications based on the holistic knowledge of the system of the human body and on the experience of many people active in the field of sports in theory and in practice. The principles include basic elements of current sport workout combined with professional "consciousness” and are as such the basic foundations of workout.
DESCRIPTION OF THE TRAINING PRINCIPLES
Knowledge of the basic principles of sport training is a first step to quality and successful planning for everyone who has decided to systematically improve his body. M. Lasan (1996) claims that each workout is a cyclic repetition of certain elements on gradually increased level; that means that we always come to the same task: to improve movement in a way that we change individual characteristics which after a certain number of repetitions cause a modification of the organism to a new quality.
The organism needs some time for such a transformation that must follow intense stimulations. Than a new cycle of workout on a higher level begins using the memory of prior experience on the basis of a different combination of
basic motoric and psychological characteristics of an individual. An equally complex movement is evolved but each time on a higher, more perfect level conditioned by various patterns of individual characteristics and abilities. Each time it is important to recognize a task from a new point of view claiming a different training approach in quality and not just in quantity. The transformation of certain movement groups is not a change of their essence but a step to a new level where the same things become different.
Physical capability of an individual is a uniform, balanced whole and is not just a sum of individual movement abilities. The trainer’s creativeness is crucial in planning the development of individual parts into a "whole product” therefore we shall analyze individual characteristics. Each path of transformation is directed into independent development of one movement capability which is always connected to the whole. Pursuant to that simultaneous changes occur also in the rest of the movement system because of adaptation to a new situation (morphological changes, changes in the static-dynamical balance, changes in the centre of gravity etc.). Thereby a new unique entity of movement capabilities is formed: a uniform, correctly balanced whole.
It is thereby evident that in training we must always deal with an individual as a whole. We cannot settle only for determining isolated positive effects caused by training but also think of potential side effects that occur as a consequence of breaking the balance in the organism and re-establishing a new dynamic balance between all elements.
THE OVERLOAD PRINCIPLE
If we want to increase or improve any of the movement abilities we have to load the muscle above its current capabilities. The body reacts to overloading by adapting its neuromuscular and hormonal system. With the body’s effective adaptation its basic capabilities also increase (increased VO2 max, reduced heart beat frequency while being still, larger minute volume of the heart, bigger maximal heart beat frequency, increased muscular tonus, lower percentage of fat etc).
THE REGENERATION PRINCIPLE
After workout the organism that has been overloaded needs rest to be able to regenerate successfully. In this phase the adaptation to overloading occurs. The body provides for the renovation of the loaded tissue causing the phenomenon of super-compensation. Effective regeneration depends mainly on:
- enough time for rest,
- appropriate diet,
- enough sleep,
- psychical relaxation.
All factors effecting successful regeneration depend on the effort put in the workout. The rule is: the bigger the effort the bigger the rest and vice versa.
THE SPECIFICITY PRINCIPLE
Each workout should be planned and should lead to a certain goal. The goal can be improving capabilities for performing a certain movement task, reshaping the body, resolving health problems, preventive actions etc. Movement tasks differ from workout to workout.
The differences among other are the following:
- in the use of different muscular groups,
- in different speed of movement tasks performance,
- in different types of muscular actions.
THE ADAPTATION PRINCIPLE
Variations or changeability of resources and methods of applying work load are key elements for successful training. There are many ways how to enter diversity into the training programme:
- with a change of an exercise or a different combination of exercises,
- with a change in performance of an exercise,
- with a change in duration of loading,
- with a change in intensity of loading etc.
The purpose of diversifying in a training programme is to change the effects of training on an individual which prepares the body for new adaptations. It also ensures a better regeneration of the organism and avoidance of long term stagnation, that is when we reach the so called platform where the same type of work does not bring a visible progress.
If we want to ensure a successful workout programme it should primarily be modified to take individual differences into account. All other principles of training have to be subjected to the principle of individuality.
THE PERIODISATION PRINCIPLE
In nature there are different cyclic actions always repeating in a certain rhythm. Inside all organisms, also the human organism, there is a constant exchange of the phase of composition and decomposition of various substances occurring in cycles differently for each substance. The idea of cycles of training is in accordance with the principle of changeability by which we want to avoid monotony in workout and stagnation. Hence, with an appropriate exchange of effort and rest we get a reaction of the person working out manifested in an increase of capability or in the change of body structure.
THE PLANNING PRINCIPLE
Periodisation is a basic principle of planning the process of every sport workout. It is about sorting the workout quantities in such a sequence that ensures the best workout effects (Ušaj 1996). The most appropriate sequence is the sequence where a certain pattern of workout characteristics is repeating through certain workout periods the result being qualitative movement creativeness. With workout instruments we can consciously and to a certain extent methodically effect biological cycles with the intent of partially changing them and ensuring that the human organism adjusts to them. This also means the possibility of a shift to a broader and deeper (self ) consciousness, understanding and better workout quality.
Thereby a certain pattern of training in a certain period is changing as regards to workout quantities and at the same time changes in content occur from cycle to cycle. Freestyler group workout system incorporates the periodisation principle in its all year round choreography routines which prevents stagnation and brings improved results.