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GLOSSARY

Abduction: move from the body

Adduction: move towards the body

Aerobic sources of energy: source of energy with the presence of oxygen (fat, protein, glycogen)

Aerobic capacity: the maximal amount of oxygen that an organism can use in a unit of time. It is an indicator of aerobic preparedness of the organism.

Aerobic workout: activity during which the need of muscles for energy is fulfilled with sufficient presence of oxygen in the muscles and its use in the muscles according to the tempo of the oxidation process. Aerobic activities are activities that last longer. Examples: running, swimming, cycling where long distances are mastered at a low or medium intensity.

Agonist: a muscle that causes movement to occur

Amino acids: substances that contain nitrogen and are a constituent part of proteins

Anaerobic energy capacity: total amount of energy that can be gained from anaerobic energy sources, stored in muscle cells

Anaerobic energy sources: substances that create energy without the presence of oxygen (ATP, CrP, glycogen)

Anaerobic threshold: level of applying load where still available aerobic energy sources cannot fulfil the metabolic requirement of workout which increases the anaerobic metabolism resulting in increase of concentration of lactic acid in the blood (lactate)

Anaerobic workout: highly intensive activity where processes for energy regeneration without the presence of oxygen, prevail; main fuels are ATP and CrP

Antagonist: muscle functioning opposite to the action caused by the agonist

ATP: adenosine triphosphate; high energy phosphate molecule. Upon breaking of phosphate bonds energy necessary for cell functioning is released. ATP is regenerated in an aerobic and anaerobic way.

Biomechanics: science examining internal and external forces affecting the body during movement and the effects of these forces

BMR: basal metabolic rate: energy used by the body while being still for normal functioning

Calorie: amount of thermal energy necessary for the increase of temperature of 1 gram of water for 1 ºC

Carbohydrates: essential nutrients supplying the body with energy. Food containing carbohydrates: sugars, cereal, rise, potatoes, beans etc. 1 g OH = 4 kcal.

Cardio-fitness: cyclic activities that increase the functionality of the cardiovascular and the respiratory system

Composed exercises: all exercises that include movement in more than three joints (squats, dead lift, bench press, shoulder press, chins etc.)

Concentric contraction: type of muscle contraction where external forces are smaller than the internal muscle force. Therefore, muscle contraction occurs. Lifting weights is a classic concentric exercise.

Cyclic activity: monotonous monostructural movements that last longer or are repeating (walking, running, cycling, swimming)

Definition: absence or a small amount of fat tissue over the shaped and evolved muscles. The other term for ‘definition’ is ‘muscularity’. It is important mainly in case of bodybuilders who have such a low percentage of fat that muscle fibres are clearly visible.

Dehydration: loss of essential body fluids

Eccentric contraction: muscle contraction where external forces are bigger than the force generated by the muscle; that causes muscle elongation

Extension: a move of any part of the body (arms, legs, trunk) from a contracted to a extended position

Energetic balance: the principle of body functioning where body weight remains the same if the entry of calories equals energy use: positive or negative energy balance will cause an increase or a decrease in body weight

Energy depots: stock of different substances for energy regeneration used by the body according to intensity and duration of loading (creatine phosphate, glycogen, fats)

Fat: essential nutrient supplying the body with energy; it also functions in the sense of storing energy in the hypodermis and around internal organs and thermo isolation of the body. 1g = 9 kcal

Fatness: excessive accumulation of fat tissue. Usually the limit of fatness is defined with the percentage of fat in the body. The criterion for overfatness is above 25 % for men and above 30 %for women

Flexion: a move of a part of the body (arms, legs, trunk) from an extended to a contracted position

Flexibility: elasticity in the joints, the muscle and the connective tissue ensuring movement of the limbs to maximal amplitudes. Flexibility can be evolved only through systematic training of stretching. Stretching is important for relaxing the muscles especially after training

Functional anatomy: describes all possible movements in the joints and skeletal-muscular structures involved in this process.

Glycogen: a form the body uses for storing glucose; it can be found in the muscles and the liver.

Hypertrophy: a scientific term describing the increase in muscle mass and improvement in relative muscle strength. Hypertrophy is achieved with overburdening the muscle with different training techniques, causing a reaction from the muscle and its adaptation to exertion.

Intermuscular coordination: coordinated work of various muscles and muscle groups

Intramuscular coordination: coordinated activation of motor units within one muscle

Isokinetic workout: dynamic workout in which external resistance is overcome at a constant speed

Isolation exercises: all exercises where movement is limited to maximally two joints (extension of the knee, flexion of the knee, adduction of the leg, abduction of the arm etc.)

Isometric workout: activity during which the muscle maintains its length at an increased tension

Isotonic workout: activity during which the length of the muscle changes while the tension usually stays the same through the whole amplitude of movement

Lactic acid: side product of anaerobic glycolysis (the process in which energy is gained without oxygen) that causes local muscle inflammation

Metabolism: chemical and physiological processes in the body supplying the body with energy for normal maintenance of life functions

Minerals: anorganic substances that must be present in a diet in small portions and are needed by the body for regulating body functions

Muscle atrophy: reduction in size and functional capacity of the muscles on account of inactivity or immobilization

Myofibril: muscle fibre. They are composed of numerous structures that contain contractile structures. They are divided into fast twitch (white) and slow twitch (red) fibres.

Power: the total amount of work done by the muscle in a certain time frame. It is determined with the force of muscle contraction, the length of the path of contraction and the number of contractions in one time unit.

Pyramid training: growing and declining applying of work load and corresponding decreased or increased number of repetitions in a series

Protein: essential nutrient composed of 22 different amino acids. It builds and regenerates body tissue. 1 g = 4 kcal.

RDA: Recommended Dietary Allowances. It is used in foodstuffs classifications. It is a theoretically determined optimal daily use of certain nutrients. It is expressed in percents of advisable daily use.

Rotators: muscles performing rotation around the horizontal axis

Synergist: muscle helping agonists in exertion

Stretching: active and passive stretching exercises used for improving flexibility and also in the process of warming up, regeneration and relaxation

Super-compensation: the condition of increased functional and working capacity as a consequence of adaptation to increased work load.

Valsalva manoeuvre: increased pressure in the thorax caused by a strong exhale and holding of breath

Vitamins: anorganic substances acting as metabolic regulators in the body. They are divided into those melting in water and those melting in fats